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Frequently asked questions
Our Scientific Applications Support team has assembled a list of frequently asked questions to help you find answers quickly. Filter using one or more categories to focus on specific topics, or use the search bar to perform a text search.
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What types of modifications are routinely used in antisense experiments?
Phosphorothioate (PS) bonds are added to antisense oligonucleotides to protect them from nuclease degradation. Antisense oligos can include a full PS backbone; however, the Tm decreases with each PS bond added. Including extensive PS modification can also promote the antisense oligo to non-specifically bind to proteins. This characteristic can increase oligo circulation time and improve cellular internalization when a delivery tool is not employed. However, it can also cause a pro-inflammatory response if the antisense oligo binds non-specifically to immune receptors.
5-Methyl dC (5-Me dC) modified bases are often used to prevent CpG motifs in an antisense oligo from triggering a TLR9 innate immune response. 2’-O-methoxy-ethyl (2’-MOE) or Affinity Plus locked nucleic acid base modifications are often added to increase nuclease resistance and binding affinity of antisense oligos.